As revealed in the previous blog, the first three pages of the Hampton manuscript were written by Walter Soobroy. Walter’s taste appears consistent with the popular contemporary repertoire of mid-late 19th century England. It is possible that Soobroy was using these familiar items, coupled with the more technical, pedagogic items (see below) to teach Thomas, either to read music or teaching him to play or improve his ability on the violin.
The first tune is an untitled and unidentified contemporary waltz by Frank Musgrave. The item which follows was originally thought to be an independent melody due to the re-drawing of treble clef, key and time signatures, however, the trend of contemporary popular melodies to have a second modulating section makes the tune a likely second section of Ham.1.1.
Little existing information can be found written about the composer Musgrave, although Worldcat provide biographical dates of 1834-1888 and a publication timeline spanning 1850-1883. The 1861 census does not reveal a Frank Musgrave fitting these dates, although Lewis Musgrave, listed as artist, and born c1836 (Middlesex), can be found lodging in St Pancras, London, perhaps indicating a name change or pen-name as he became better known. In the 1871 census, reference can be found to a Musical Compositor called Frank Musgrave, born c1839 in Middlesex, London, and lodging in a house in Southampton Row, Bloomsbury. By the 1881 census, aged 45, Musgrave has elevated to the status of Professor of Music, lodging in Fulham Road.12
The large number of newspaper advertisements which make mention of Musgrave, suggests he was a prolific composer throughout the latter half of the 19th century, with many magazines and tune books containing his new compositions. Scowcroft, writing the only other reference to Musgrave that I could find, states that he was Musical Director of the Strand Theatre in 1865 and by 1873 was the ‘lessee of the Theatre Royal, Nottingham.’ Throughout the 1870s he was touring with various self-composed operettas. Prior to his appointment at The Strand Theatre he wrote, ‘mostly dance music (quadrilles, valses and polkas…), arrangements and “nigger songs”’, suggesting therefore that this waltz dates from pre-1865.
The omission of a title could indicate that Soobroy or Hampton were unaware of the exact title, learning the tune by ear, although the accuracy and neatness of transcriptions makes me doubt this, an area which will be explored in more depth in a later blog. The melody is in keeping with the popular composed waltz of the sort in fashion in the later 19th century:- simple yet lyrical and ‘popular’ sounding, built around an 8 bar phrase which is repeated with a very slight alteration in the final 3 bars of the repetition. The melodic simplicity strengthens the argument that these initial tunes had a pedagogic function.
The octave doubling, added afterwards by the same hand may be a musical embellishment. However, I believe it could corroborate the theory that the book was, initially at least, used as a pedagogic tool. In this section, the melody extends beyond the reach of a violinist’s normal hand position, known as 1st position, and would require either a 4th finger extension to reach the high ‘c’ or, more likely a change of hand position into 3rd position. This requires a higher level of technical skill, hence the inclusion of a lower octave as an option for a player who is not so advanced.
Aural transmission could be implied by the very slight inaccuracies regarding musical theory and notation. In bar 16, a minim would be expected in order to accommodate the upbeat of the next musical phrase. Instead, a dotted minim fills the entire bar and the transcriber has given the crotchet upbeat a complete bar. Furthermore, the last bar contains a crotchet, rather than a minim to balance out the anacrusis at the start of the piece. That said, I believe the inaccuracies to be copying errors as the neatness, ornamentations and bow markings all point towards replication from a direct source as a means of transmission. Throughout this research I have considered methods of transmission very closely and will explain and justify my methods and theory of transmission in a later blog.
A direct source for the tune remains unidentified, although a potential source, given the pedagogic nature of some of Soobroy’s inclusions would be a contemporary violin tutor, perhaps by Farmer or Westrop. This assumption is supported by the lack of unique title as a similar trend was noted in other contemporaneous tutor books. Two potential tutors were examined at the British Library but neither proved the direct source.
Using the given title of ‘Mama’s Little Pet Waltz’, this tune was traced in two c1860 records in the British Library catalogue, a piano music-sheet, and an inclusion in Farmer’s Orchestral Journal. Both sources verify the composer as Farmer, who Scowcroft lists as living between 1819-1891, working as a composer and owner of a music warehouse in Nottingham. The tune was also viewed, unexpectedly in the British Library archives, as part of the collection of tunes in Williams’s 105 Popular Dances for the Cornet-a-Piston in A natural, giving an example of the problems encountered when researching 19th century popular music without an existing catalogue of printed material and their contents for this genre.
Williams’ transcription, being in a different key from Soobroy’s, is likely not his direct source. However, the notational stylistics, such as dynamics, phrasing etc., suggest Soobroy had access to a similar source – perhaps from the same publisher (see figure below), the difference in key perhaps indicating an arrangement for an alternative instrument.
Figure 1 : William’s 105 Dances for Cornet in A. Image taken at BL (e.271).
Once again, the new stave and treble clef shown in Ham.2.1 could be thought to indicate a new tune, yet following an examination of the tune at the British Library, it can be confirmed to be a second section of Ham.1.3 written on the previous page.
Generically titled yet identified as the traditional Scottish song melody of ‘Blue Bells of Scotland’. The origins of the melody are tricky to ascertain as considering the rudimentary musical structure and the simplistic, gently lyrical nature of the melody, the tune could be considered to have historic origins, yet it was popular (and possibly composed) circa1800. Chappell discusses the song in his chapter entitled, ‘Traditional tunes of uncertain date’, informing that the version popular today, ‘”The blue bell of Scotland, a favourite ballad, as composed and sung by Mrs Jordan at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane,” was entered at Stationers’ Hall on the 13th of May, 1800, and the music published by Longman and Co.’.
However, the originality of Jordan’s tune is in dispute. Laura Vosika, suggests the tune is a modified version of an earlier tune and further states that Ritson ‘noted on copies of his version that, “The song has lately been introduced upon the stage by Mrs. Jordan, who knew neither the words nor the tune.”’. I have found a version of the tune in Jackson’s 1798 manuscript which is a close variant of both the tune in the Hampton manuscript and the tune found in Chappell. The uneven structure (6AA10B), and repeated use of the main theme suggests Jackson may have copied this out from memory. It comes towards the end of his manuscript so matches with the dates of Mrs Jordan’s performance.
To see the same tune appearing seventy to eighty years later in the Hampton manuscript, suggests remarkable longevity. Turner, in The Parlour Song Book, describes how until the explosion of popular songs in the 1870s, ‘songs could have an active life in the parlour of sixty years or more’. More plausibly perhaps, this is an example of a tune being ‘recycled’ by one of the publishing houses such as Hopwood & Crew, or Charles Sheard etc., offering for sale cheap music sheets and books containing a mix of genres, re-igniting the tune’s popularity.
Soobroy’s source is likely to be contemporaneous as the tune was popular at that time and can be found in many publications of that period. Numerous forms of the tune were viewed in the British Library archives and a version also exists in Soobroy’s printed collection. The British Library archives revealed a copy showing astounding similarities and only slight melodic variation at phrase endings, (see figure 2 below). This tune is also named with the same curiously generic title and the addition in the collection title of ‘composed for the use of amateurs’, perhaps indicates Soobroy’s source for these initial items was a tutor book.
Figure 2 ‘Scotch Melody’, taken from The Violinist’s Portfolio Composed for the Use of Amateurs by A R Reinacle, D’Almaine & Co 20, photograph taken at BL, (h.217).
Ham.2.3 & Ham.2.4
These two items are pedagogic exercises based around a D major scale detailing position changes and bowing technique. Similar but not identical items were found in contemporary tutor books viewed at the British Library.
‘The Liverpool Hornpipe’ is a popular hornpipe which appears in several manuscripts including Winder, (1834-42), and Winter, (1848). Kuntz’s earliest find in the Gibbons manuscript, dated 1823-26, in which it is called ‘London Hornpipe’, can be preceded by a close variant called ‘Manchester Hornpipe’ in the Jackson manuscript dated 1798.
Sharp and Vaughan Williams, amongst others, collected this tune during the first decade of the 20th century, showing its popularity. However, this does not necessarily indicate a long aural or oral tradition, and could be the result of recycling the tune in the same sort of publications as discussed above. Kuntz states that the tune, was, ‘printed endlessly in collections since the mid-19th century’, and based on the surrounding material, popularity and proliferation of the tune seen in contemporary publications in wider literature and at the British Library, Soobroy’s source is likely a contemporary collection of violin music.
‘The Weddin Galop’, bears the hallmarks of a Victorian composition for the dance music market. Soobroy attributes this tune to composer C. Coote and in the 19th century both Charles Coote Senior (1809-1880), and Charles Coote Junior, (1831-1916), are listed as composers and arrangers. The archival visit to the British Library and a lithographed front cover of a published arrangement of the tune, published by Hopwood and Crew in 1867, found online, (see figure below), confirms Charles Coote Junior as composer.
Figure 3 Music Sheet Cover of ‘The Wedding Galop’ by Charles Coote Junior. Image taken from http://www.lookandlearn.com
The version found in Hampton’s manuscript bears remarkable similarity, (apart from omitting a repeated section of the opening eight bars), to a printed version of the tune found in Soobroy’s collection of Hopwood and Crew’s Selection of Quadrilles, Waltzes, Polkas &c. Book 4. , (see figure 4 below), suggesting he used this as a direct source.
The printed copy bears no date, and a search of newspaper advertisements reveals little, however, advertisements naming Robert Coote, who worked for Hopwood and Crew, editing and arranging this publication, would suggest a date of early 1860s. The British Library do not hold a copy of this book, but do have copies of books 5, 6 and 8 which they date between 1870-87.
Figure 4 ‘The Wedding Galop’, by Charles Coote taken from Hopwood & Crew Selection…Book 4
As the title suggests, the music is intended for a dance called a Galop: – ‘one of the most popular ballroom dances of the 19th century’.
The next blog will continue examining the content of Hampton’s manuscript and introduces Thomas’ repertoire which combines more historic dance tunes with the popular tunes of the day.
 This is also seen in Ham.1.3 and Ham.2.1.
 OCLC Worldcat Identities, ‘Musgrave, Frank 1834-1888’, <http://www.worldcat.org/identities/lccn-n82227810/> [accessed 10th December 2015].
 Philip L. Scowcroft, ‘A Forty-Eighth Garland of British Music Composers’, MusicWeb International <http://www.musicweb-international.com/garlands/48.htm> [accessed 1st September 2015].
 Henry Farmer, Henry Farmer’s Violin School, (London: Paxton, No date); T. Westrop, Universal Violin Tutor, (London: Charles Sheard / MB, No date).
 Philip L Scowcroft, ‘A Thirty-Seveth Garland of British Light Music Composers’, Music Web International (No date) <http://www.musicweb-international.com/garlands/37.htm> [accessed 30 April 2017].
 Joseph Williams and Hugh Shimmells, Williams’s 105 Popular Dances, Arranged for the Cornet-à-Piston in a by H. Shimmells., (London: Joseph Williams, 1859).
 Ibid. p. 21.
 William Chappell, The Ballad Literature and Popular Music of the Olden Time, (New York: Dover Publications, Inc., 1965), p. 739.
 Laura Vosika, ‘Blue Bells the Folk Song’, The World of the Blue Bells Trilogy (2010) <http://bluebellstrilogy.com/blog/2010/04/blue-bells-the-folk-song/> [accessed 20 March 2017].
 Robin Shepherd and Rosalind Shepherd, Mr Joshua Jackson Book 1798 : Tunes, Songs & Dances from the Manuscript of a Yorkshire Corn Miller and Musician Volume Two, 2 vols (West Yorkshire: R & R Shepherd, 2011), p. 104.
 Michael R. Turner, The Parlour Song Book, (London: Michael Joseph Ltd, 1972), p. 21.
 Boosey, Boosey’s Hundred Reels, Country & Other Dances. For the Violin, (Boosey, c1859), p. 8.The two versions of the tune are not identical, furthermore Boosey’s version has the correct title, indicating that Soobroy did not copy from this particular edition.
 Parkinson dates Reinacle’s book to between 1834-1858. John A. Parkinson, Victorian Music Publishers : An Annotated List, (Michigan: Harmonie Park Press, 1990), p. 70.
 Andy Hornby, The Winders of Wyresdale, (Andy Hornby, 2013), p. 147.
 Kennedy Grant Memorial Library Halsway Manor, William Winter Music Manuscript Book (1848-50).
 Andrew Kuntz and Valerio Pelliccioni, ‘Liverpool Hornpipe (1)’, Traditional Tune Archive (2017) <http://tunearch.org/wiki/Annotation:Liverpool_Hornpipe_(1)> [accessed 1 October 2015].
 Geoff Bowen and others, Tunes, Songs & Dances from the 1798 Manuscript of Joshua Jackson North Yorkshire Corn Miller and Musician, Volume One, 2nd edn, 2 vols (Bowen & Shepherd, 2015), p. 47.
 Kuntz and Pelliccioni.
 Frank Greene, ‘People Coote Charles’, TheMusicSack (2017) <http://musicsack.com/PersonFMTDetail.cfm?PersonPK=100067546> [accessed 26 September 2017].
Look and Learn, ‘Pictures of Charles Coote’, Look and Learn (2017) <http://www.lookandlearn.com/history-images/search.php?img=1&search=Charles+Coote&thumbs=4> [accessed 26 September 2017]. BL hold two arrangements, one for piano dated 1866 and published by Hopwood and Crew, (British Library Catalogue, ‘The Wedding Galop by Charles Coote Junr’, British Library (No date) <http://explore.bl.uk> [accessed 26 September 2017].), and a later one, c1887 arranged as a duet and published by Edwin Ashdown, British Library Catalogue, ‘Coote’s Wedding Galop. Duet’, British Library (No date) <http://explore.bl.uk> [accessed 26 September 2017].
 Robert Coote, Hopwood & Crew’s Selection of Quadrilles, Waltzes, Polkas &C. Edited and Expressly Arranged for the Violin Book 4, (Hopwood & Crew, c1860s).
 British Library Catalogue, ‘Hopwood & Crew’s … Quadrilles, Waltzes, Galops, Polkas, Etc., for the Violin. Arranged … By R. Coote. [Bk. 5, 6 and 8 by C. Minasi.]’, British Library (No date) <http://explore.bl.uk> [accessed 17 April 2015].